Problem: crack an encrypted file by brute force. Assume that the password is a five-letter lower-case word and that you know that the plain text contains my name.
(The complete code for this example and a secret message comes with the jug source)
This is the ultimate parallel problem: try very many keys (26**5 ~ 11M), but there is no interaction between the different tasks.
The brute force version is very simple:
for p in product(letters, repeat=5): text = decode(ciphertext, p) if isgood(text): passwd = "".join(map(chr,p)) print '%s:%s' % (passwd, text)
However, if we have more than one processor, we’d like to be able to jug jug to use the multiple processors.
We cannot simply have each password be its own task: 11M tasks would be too much!
So, we are going to iterate over the first letter and a task will consist of trying every possibility starting with that letter:
@TaskGenerator def decrypt(prefix, suffix_size): res =  for p in product(letters, repeat=suffix_size): text = decode(ciphertext, np.concatenate([prefix, p])) if isgood(text): passwd = "".join(map(chr,p)) res.append((passwd, text)) return res @TaskGenerator def join(partials): return list(chain(*partials)) fullresults = join([decrypt( [let], 4) for let in letters])
Here, the decrypt function returns a list of all the good passwords it found. To simplify things, we call the join function which concatenates all the partial results into a single list for convenience.
Now, run jug:
$ jug execute jugfile.py & $ jug execute jugfile.py & $ jug execute jugfile.py & $ jug execute jugfile.py &
You can run as many simultaneous processes as you have processors. To see what is happening, type:
$ jug status jugfile.py
And you will get an output such as:
Task name Waiting Ready Finished Running ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- jugfile.join 1 0 0 0 jugfile.decrypt 0 14 8 4 ........................................................................................ Total: 1 14 8 4
There are two task functions: decrypt, of which 8 are finished, 14 are ready to run, and 4 are currently running; and join which has a single instance, which is waiting: it cannot run until all the decrypt tasks have finished.
Eventually, everyone will be finished and your results will be saved in directory jugdata in files with names such as jugdata/5/4/a1266debc307df7c741cb7b997004f The name is simply a hash of the task description (function and its arguments).
In order to make sense of all of this, we write a final script, which loads the results and prints them on stdout:
import jug jug.init('jugfile', 'jugdata') import jugfile results = jug.task.value(jugfile.fullresults) for p,t in results: print "%s\n\n Password was '%s'" % (t,p)
jug.init takes the jugfile name (which happens to be jugfile.py, the extension is optional if it is .py) and the data directory name.
jug.task.value takes a jug.Task and loads its result. It handles more complex cases too, such as a list of tasks (and returns a list of their results).